Penggunaan Participle Pada English Grammar – Participle english grammar adalah sebuah bentuk verba yang lazim di gunakan dengan kombinasi auxiliary verb (kata kerja bantu) untuk membuat kalimat continuous dan perfect.

1.

  • Mrs. Ramdan had gone out when her husband came home
  • The friday prayer oration had gone out when her husband came home

2.

  • Having eaten too much the night before, he woke up late
  • Having read two novels the ight before, he woke up late

participle terbagi dua: present participle; past participle. present participle merupakan verba dasar ditambah -ing (-ing form) yang menunjukkan continuous actions, seperti she has been cooking for an hour (dia sudah sedang masak selama satu jam ini). sementara itu, past participle merupakan verba konjungsi/tasrif ke 3 untuk membuat perfect tense, baik yang berbentuk past seperti she had eaten some bread maupun present seperti she has eaten some bread.

perlu diingat bahwa verba yang tasrifnya tak teratur (irregular conjunction) seperti eat-ate-eaten bentuk participle-nya tidak sama dengan bentuk past-nya. namun, ada pula sejumlah verba yang tasrifnya tak teratur yang memiliki participle sama dengan bentuk past-nya seperti read-read-read (baca: ri:d-red-red). disamping itu, ada pula bentuk participle dengan -ing yang disebut present participle. after being participle accused of dishonesty, the minister resigned (setelah dituduh tak jujur, menteri itu mengundurkan diri).

Baca juga: Penggunaan Verb Dengan To Dan -Ing

terlepas dari pelbagai bentuk participle tersebut, yang terpenting untuk diingat adalah perlunya menghindari kecenderungan keliru dalam menggunakan bentuk past sesudah kata-kata have, has, had, atau having. gunakanlah selalu bentuk participle sesudah kata-kata tersebut!

Examples

Incorrect:

  1. a thief had broken into the office and stole the files
  2. having eaten and drank too much the night before, he overslept
  3. my advisor was pleased with the topic that I chose for my thesis
  4. although he had ran as fast as he could, he only placed third in the race.
  5. having wrote two successful books on psychology, he published two english books

Correct:

  1. a thief had broken into the office and stolen the files
  2. having eaten and drunk too much the night before, he overslept
  3. my advisor was pleased with the topic that I had chosen for my thesis
  4. although he had run as fast as he could, he only placed third in the race.
  5. having written two successful books on psychology, he published two english books

Exercise 02

complete the sentences on the left-hand side by using words or phrases available on the right-hand side. insert a, b, c, etc suitable to the sentences

  1. what have you…?
  2. ….a letter to my parents?
  3. what has…. already made?
  4. she … mad her husband a cup of coffee
  5. …. before you begin to study arabic?
  6. …. before i started studing arabic?
  7. …. waiting for her husband before he came?
  8. …. for him for an hour
  9. what will you have …. the jumah prayer?
  10. I’ll have … before I observe the prayer

a. she

b. what had you done

c. how long had she been

d. you did

e. done before observing

f. i have writing

g. done

h. she’d been waiting

i. performed an ablution

j. has

k. i’d read an arabic paper

l. i’ve written

Sumber: Muhibbin Syah. Cara Mudah Menerapkan English Grammar Kaidah & Latihan untuk Rujukan Belajar Sendiri. 2006. PT Raja Grafindo Persada, Jakarta