Pronomina Pengubung lainnya (When, which, on which, etc.) – kata which dan that artinya yang dan sering dipakai silih berganti. Kendatipun demikian, perlu dimaklumi bahwa kedua relative pronoun ini sudah cukup lazim dinafikan.

Which & that

Contoh 1

I bought a book yesterday: the book is on Islamic history

  • The book which I bought yesterday is on Islamic history
  • The book that I bought yesterday is on Islamic history

Contoh, the book I borrowed is on psychology (buku yang kupinjam itu mengenai psikologi)

When (at which/in which/on which)

Contoh 2

We don’t go to school on Sundays. They don’t go to work on Saturdays and Sundays

  • The days on which we don’t go to school are Sundays
  • The days on which they don’t go to work are Saturdays and Sundays

He works at a post office. The post office is very spacious. The post office was painted white.

  • The post office at which he works is very spacious
  • The post office at which he works was painted white

Kata on which dalam konteks kalimat contoh 2 di atas artinya saat yang/hari yang. Pronominal ini tak lazim diganti dengan on that, tetapi boleh dinafikan seperti the days we don’t go to school are Sundays (hari-hari kami tak pergi ke sekolah adalah hari-hari ahad). Sementara itu, kata at which dalam contoh 3 seyogyanya diartikan tempat … bukan dimana. Jadi, kalimat the post office at which he works … dalam Bahasa Indonesia berarti kantor post tempat dia bekerja itu … bukan kantor pos di mana dia bekerja itu …

Contoh 4

  • You must remember the time when/at which/that you’ll see the doctor
  • You must remember the day when/on which/that you’ll have an exam
  • You must remember the month when/in which/that you’ll do the obligatory fasting

Kata when berarti saat … yang dapat diganti dengan in which jika merujuk kepada bulan, dan tahun dengan on which jika merujuk kepada hari, dan dengan at which jika merujuk kepada jam. Penggunaan when dan … which pada umumnya kebih diutamakan daripada that atau daripada penafiannya.

Where (in which … in, that … in, … in)

Contoh 5

  • The house where/in which he lives is far from here
  • The city where/in which he lives is far from here
  • The country where/in which he lives is far from here

Contoh 6

  • The apartment where/that they live in is not very far from here
  • The apartment where/which they used to live in is near here

Penggunaan where/in which (contoh 5), dan where/which … in (contoh 6) pada umumnya lebih diutamakan daripada that … in. namun, where/that … in dan where/which … in dapat disingkat penggunaannya seperti: the apartment they used to live in is near here (rumah susun tempat tinggal mereka dulu, dekat dari sini). Perlu diingat bahwa kata where yang secara harafiah berarti di mana hendaknya diartikan sebagai tempat … seperti pada cintoh 3 di atas, karena dalam kaidah Bahasa Indonesia di mana merupakan kata yang digunakan untuk menanyakan tempat. Oleh karena itu, kalimat seperti the house where he lives is far from here berarti “rumah tempat tinggalnya jauh dari sini,” bukan “rumah di mana dia tinggal jauh dari sini.” (Baca juga: Penggunaan Pronomina Penghubung Whose)

Examples

Incorrect:

  1. Villagers generally forget the month at which they were born
  2. Do you know where a king usually lives on?
  3. The state which Miss Cindy was used to living is Queensland
  4. Was the book which was you bought about geography?
  5. The days on when Muslims do the Jumah prayer are Fridays.

Correct:

  1. Villagers generally forget the month in which (when) they were born
  2. Do you know where a king usually lives in?
  3. The state in which Miss Cindy was used to living is Queensland
  4. Was the book which (that) you bought about geography?
  5. The days on which (when) Muslims do the Jumah prayer are Fridays.

Exercise

Change one of the underlined words or phrases into correct form. Remember that there is only one incorrect word or phrase in each question.

  1. Do the villagers remember the year at which they were born?
  2. We know that kings usually live on palaces
  3. Is Queensland the state which she used to live in?
  4. The book that is I bought last week is not in geography
  5. The bank on which Allan works is about five minutes walk from here
  6. Was Jakarta the city in where he lived 10 year ago?
  7. Do you remember the day which on she will come and see you?
  8. Yes, I do. But I forget the time which at she will show up
  9. Boarding schools are schools on which students have to study and live
  10. Are Fridays the days on that Muslims go praying the Jumah?

Sumber: Muhibbin Syah. Cara Mudah Menerapkan English Grammar Kaidah & Latihan untuk Rujukan Belajar Sendiri. 2006. PT Raja Grafindo Persada, Jakarta