Teks Interaksi terkait Cause and Effect – Memberi dan meminta informasi terkait hubungan cause (sebab) dan effect (akibat) dalam teks interaksi sesuai dengan konteks penggunaannya dalam pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris kelas 11.

Cause & Effect


  • The reason or motive, for an action
  • Why something happens
  • happens first
  • Example: it rained


  • Result or conclusion of an action
  • What happened
  • happens due to a cause
  • Example I got wet

A lead To B →← Cause led to Effect

  • To find a cause, ask, why did this happen?
  • To find an effect, ask, what happened?
  • Example: It rained, so I got wet

Signal words: when we talk about cause, we use the following signal words:

  • Because
  • The reason for
  • On account of
  • Bring about
  • Give rise to
  • Created by
  • Contributed to
  • Led to
  • Due to
  • For this reason
  • Unless

Signal words: when we talk about an effect resulting from a certain cause, we use the following signal words:

  • As a result
  • Then
  • Hence
  • For this reason
  • Therefore
  • Outcome
  • So
  • Consequently
  • Finally
  • Therefore
  • in order to

Some examples of Cause and Effect relationships

Sentence: Sumatran tigers are almost extinct because people killed too many of them

Cause & Effect Relationship:  Cause – people killed too many of them. Effect – Sumatran tigers almost became extinct

Sentence:  Haze is caused by massive forest burning

Cause & Effect Relationship: Cause – massive forest burning. Effect – haze

Sentence: Since they are in love, they forgive each other’s mistakes

Cause & Effect Relationship: Cause – They are in love. Effect – They forgive each other’s mistakes

Sentence:  Early man learnt to grow food, and as a result, their lives became easier

Cause & Effect Relationship: Cause – early man learnt to grow food. Effect – their lives became easier

Let’s take a look at the sentence structure of cause and effect

Due to, because of, owing to and thanks are followed by a noun

  • Due to + Noun
  • Because of + Noun
  • Owing to + Noun
  • Thanks to + Noun

Because, since, as, for are followed by a verb

  • Because (Subject + verb)
  • Since (Subject + verb)
  • As (Subject + verb)
  • For (Subject + verb)
  • As a result of (Subject + verb)


  1. Owing to her hard work and intelligence, we won the trophy
  2. Thanks to Siti and John’s effective planning, the event went well
  3. Because of his hard work, he managed to get the best student award
  4. I have a stomachache because I ate too much food
  5. There was a lot of homework and tests, as a result most of the students were unhappy and couldn’t go anywhere during the weekend

(Sumber: Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan RI 2017 Bahasa Inggris Kelas XI SMA/SMK/MAK)

Baca juga: Surat Pribadi: Personal Letter in English